A posteriori hypotheses are generated based on induction. They are formed based on empirical observations together with subsequent attempts to hypothesize the underlying cause of the observations. A posteriori tests (also called post-hoc tests) are statistical tests that were not planned before study data were collected. Compared with a priori tests, these are likely to be viewed with some scepticism, because bias may be introduced by deciding what to test and what testing method to use having inspected the study results. Multiple comparison methods have been developed to correct for this possible bias. In Bayesian analysis a posteriori may be used to refer to improved updated estimates of a quantity, based on a priori expectations combined with study observations.

How to cite: A Posteriori (Tests) [online]. (2016). York; York Health Economics Consortium; 2016. https://yhec.co.uk/glossary/a-posteriori-tests/